Proposal 3, known as the 25% by 2025 (25×25) ballot initiative, would amend the state’s constitution by requiring electricity providers to obtain by 2025 at least 25% of their electricity from renewable energy sources. A constitutional amendment of this nature raises numerous technical, legal, social, and eco-nomic issues.

For more information, contact Ken Sikkema ( or by phone at 517-484-4954).

A copy of the full report is available below.