Welcome to Michigan in Brief: 2002–03, a reference document about Michigan state government and public policy

This seventh edition is sponsored by the Michigan Nonprofit Association and the Council of Michigan Foundations and was prepared and published by Public Sector Consultants, Inc. This handbook:

  • addresses more than 40 Michigan public policy issues, presenting a glossary, background, a nonpartisan discussion of policy options, and sources of additional information;
  • describes the three branches of state government;
  • explains the state budget process;
  • contains appendices presenting economic and census data about the state; and
  • describes the operation and role of the Michigan nonprofit sector, including the work of foundations.

Read the full publication.

Michigan in Brief: 2002–03, prepared and published by Public Sector Consultants, Inc., provides useful information about the state and an objective look at more than 40 public policy topics of current concern to Michigan residents and their elected representatives. The issues are treated in sufficient depth to be useful to the well-informed yet written plainly enough to be understood by nonexperts. Each policy topic presentation has four parts: a glossary; background information; discussion of policy options, including a balanced, nonpartisan presentation of various viewpoints; and sources of additional information, including telephone and FAX numbers as well as Web sites where available. (E-mail addresses are not included because they change too frequently.)

Chapters 1–3 of Michigan in Brief provide historical, general, and budgetary information about the state.

  • “About Michigan” summarizes the economic, cultural, and political history of the state, recounting events from 1600 to the present, and presents a profile of the state’s people and lifestyles in addition to a list of facts about the state.
  • “About State Government” profiles the executive branch (including brief descriptions of state departments), legislative branch (with a sketch of the lawmaking process), and judicial branch (with an explanation of the various courts’ jurisdictions) and also summarizes state government’s checks and balances.
  • “About the State Budget” outlines the process by which Michigan’s annual financial plan is determined.

Chapter 4, “About Michigan’s Nonprofit Sector,” describes the organization, breadth, and contribution of this sector to the state’s people and economy.

This is the seventh edition of Michigan in Brief, and the content is confined largely to key policy issues related to human services, the environment, health care, and the arts. In addition to the index listing the subjects treated in this edition, the tables of contents from earlier editions are presented to assist readers who are interested in topics from these publications.

This handbook is available in hard copy and on line. Prior edition from 1998 offered here. For further information, please contact Public Sector Consultants, Inc., at 230 N. Washington Square, Suite 300, Lansing, Michigan 48933. The firm may be reached at 517-484-4954, 517-484-6549 (FAX), [email protected], and www.publicsectorconsultants.com.


CHAPTER 1: About Michigan

  • Economic, Cultural, and Political History
  • Profile of People and Lifestyles
  • State Facts

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CHAPTER 2: About State Government

  • Executive Branch
  • Legislative Branch
  • Judicial Branch
  • Division and Balance of Power

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CHAPTER 3: About the State Budget

  • Process
  • Size and Composition
  • Changes in State Spending
  • Revenue Sources
  • Spending Trends
  • Comparisons with Other States

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CHAPTER 4: About Michigan's Nonprofit Sector

  • Introduction
  • An Economic Force
  • Michigan Gives
  • Michigan’s Commitment to Volunteerism
  • Michigan Volunteers
  • Nonprofits and Government
  • Michigan Foundations
  • Conclusion
  • Nonprofit Resources

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About the Sponsors

The Michigan Nonprofit Association (MNA) and the Council of Michigan Foundations (CMF) are co-sponsors of Michigan in Brief: 2002–03. This handbook and the corresponding Web site are a project of the Michigan Public Policy Initiative (MPPI), an MNA program with which the CMF is affiliated.

Michigan Nonprofit Association

The Michigan Nonprofit Association is the collective voice of Michigan’s nonprofit organizations. The association was incorporated in 1990 and has more than 650 members. It provides a statewide network for the nonprofit sector, serves as a management-practices resource for nonprofit organizations, and acts as an advocate for the nonprofit community. The MNA’s mission is to promote the awareness and effectiveness of Michigan’s nonprofit sector. The goals of MNA are the following:

  • Provide services to the membership. Examples are
    • information on fundraising, management, taxes, and technology; and
    • discounts on such items as director and officer liability insurance, long-distance telephone service, classified advertising, and office supplies.
  • Provide training and technical assistance. Examples are
    • workshops on topics such as nonprofit management, legal issues, volunteer management, board development, and lobbying; and
    • annual statewide conferences such as the Grantmakers/Grantseekers Conference, the Volunteerism SuperConference, and a public policy day.
  • Promote nonprofit involvement in public policy. Examples include the Michigan Public Policy Initiative, an MNA program that
    • educates policymakers and the media on issues of concern to Michigan nonprofits;
    • advocates for the Michigan nonprofit sector on public policy issues that affect all 501(c)(3) organizations and the people they serve; and
    • engages nonprofits in advocacy by providing them with the necessary tools and resources.
  • Promote and disseminate research on the nonprofit sector. An example is
    • working with Michigan universities to develop new and promote existing research about issues of concern to the Michigan nonprofit sector and distributing it to practitioners, funders, policymakers, and the media.

For more information on the Michigan Nonprofit Association, please visit the MNA Web site at www.mnaonline.org or call (517) 492-2400.

Council of Michigan Foundations

The Council of Michigan Foundations is a 29-year-old 501(c)(3) nonprofit, membership association comprising nearly 500 independent, family, community, and corporate foundations and giving programs that make grants for charitable purposes. The CMF’s mission is to enhance, improve, and increase philanthropy in Michigan.

The CMF supports both existing and developing foundations through specialized publications, educational and networking events, a Web site and listservs, consultation, and advocacy with state and federal policymakers. In addition, the CMF publishes the biennial Michigan Foundation Directory and assists partner organizations in sponsoring seminars for grant seekers.

The CMF has two supporting organizations, the Michigan AIDS Fund and Michigan Community Foundations’ Ventures. The CMF also partners with the state—for example, through the Tobacco Settlement Partnership with community foundations.

For more information on the Council of Michigan Foundations and its services to philanthropy, please visit the Web site at www.cmif.org or call (616) 842-7080.

Michigan Public Policy Initiative

The Michigan Public Policy Initiative is a program of the MNA and is affiliated with the Council of Michigan Foundations. The goal of the MPPI is to promote the involvement of Michigan’s nonprofit community in public policy through training the community’s leaders, building the capacity of its organizations, and encouraging its collaboration with public policymakers. The activities of the MPPI help to position the nonprofit sector as a partner with public and private leaders in working on pressing social issues facing Michigan residents.

The MPPI is guided by its Advisory Committee. The members are the following:
Peg Barratt Director, Institute for Children, Youth and Families, Michigan State University
John Chamberlin Professor, University of Michigan Ford School of Public Policy
Rob Collier President and Chief Executive Officer, Council of Michigan Foundations
David Egner President, Hudson-Webber Foundation
Peter Eisinger Director, State Policy Center, Wayne State University
Lynn Harvey Professor, Michigan State University
Paul Hillegonds President, Detroit Renaissance
Lynn Jondahl Co-Director, Michigan Political Leadership Program
Ann Marston President, Michigan League for Human Services
Chris Nelson President, Michigan Association of United Ways
Sharon Claytor Peters President, Michigan’s Children
Craig Ruff President, Public Sector Consultants, Inc.
Earl Ryan President, Citizens Research Council
Sam Singh President, Michigan Nonprofit Association
Erin Skene Director, Michigan Public Policy Initiative

For more information on the Michigan Public Policy Initiative, please visit the MNA Web site at www.mnaonline.org or call (517) 492-2400.

About Public Sector Consultants

Public Sector Consultants (PSC) Inc., is a private Michigan corporation. The firm, which was founded in 1980, strives to improve its clients’ ability to meet the challenges of a changing world and communicate effectively with their constituencies. Public Sector Consultants is located in Lansing and specializes in the following:

  • Nonpartisan policy research
  • Health, environmental, education, human services, information technology, and economic analysis
  • Strategic planning
  • Program evaluation
  • Survey research
  • Public involvement

Public Sector Consultants’ services have been commissioned by hundreds of state and local government agencies, school districts, colleges and universities, professional associations, hospitals, foundations, and private corporations. A number of its reports have attracted regional and national attention, and many have substantially affected public policy and attitudes.

Clients from the private, nonprofit, and public sectors use PSC’s research, analytical, communications, and advisory capacities to develop and implement policies and strategic plans; improve internal management; identify stakeholder priorities and forge consensus among community interests; and identify political, regulatory, and economic factors influencing decisions.

The PSC staff is listed below. The firm also maintains a roster of affiliated consultants.

William R. Rustem President & Chief Executive Officer
Peter Pratt Senior Vice President for Health & Human Services
Jeff Williams Senior Vice President for Technology & Public Policy
Jack Bails Vice President & Senior Consultant for Natural Resources
Suzanne Miel-Uken Vice President & Senior Consultant for Health & Human Services
Craig Ruff Senior Policy Fellow
Ken Sikkema Senior Policy Fellow
Julie Metty Bennett Senior Consultant for Natural Resources
Mark A. Coscarelli Senior Consultant for Great Lakes & Environmental Policy
Holly Madill Senior Consultant for Natural Resources & Land Use
Amanda Menzies Senior Consultant for Health Policy
Jane Powers Senior Consultant for Health Policy
Melissa L. Riba Senior Consultant for Evaluation & Survey Research
Elisabeth Weston Senior Consultant for Technology & Business Processes
Carol Barish Consultant for Natural Resources & Environment
Shivaugn Rayl Consultant for Natural Resource Policy
Amy Spray Consultant for Natural Resources
Donna Van Natter Consultant for Technology & Business Processes
Craig Wiles Consultant for Evaluation & Survey Research
Khadija Swims Public Policy Fellow
Lynne Clark Executive Assistant
Janice Jackson Administrative Assistant
LaWalt Johnson Network & Production Manager
Jacqueline D. LaFay Executive Assistant
Diane Levy Senior Editor
Linda Sykes Controller

Public Sector Consultants’ offices are located at 230 N. Washington Square, Suite 300, Lansing, Michigan 48933. The firm may be reached by telephone (517-484-4954), facsimile (517-484-6549), e-mail ([email protected]), or Internet (www.pscinc.com).


This publication was made possible by grants to the Michigan Nonprofit Association and the Council of Michigan Foundations from the following funders:

  • W.K. Kellogg Foundation
  • C.S. Mott Foundation
  • DaimlerChrysler Corporation Fund
  • The Skillman Foundation
  • Dow Chemical Company Foundation
  • Frey Foundation
  • Ethel and James Flinn Family Foundation

Authors for Public Sector Consultants, Inc.

Jack D. Bails B.S., Fisheries; M.S., Aquatic Sciences (Michigan State University)
Carol A. Barish B.B.A., Management (Northwood University); M.S., Administration (Central Michigan University)
Mary B. Cohen B.A., Speech and Communication (University of Michigan); M.A., Communication (Western Michigan University)
Mark A. Coscarelli B.S., Environmental and Natural Resource Studies (Michigan State University)
Laurie A. Cummings B.A., International Relations; M.S., Agricultural Economics (Michigan State University)
David Ellis HNC, Business Studies (South West London College); M.S., Information and Communication Sciences (Ball State University)
Bev Farrar Federau B.A., French (Ohio Wesleyan University)
Wilma L. Harrison B.S., Education (Northwestern University)
Christine F. Hollister B.A., Social Science (Michigan State University); M.B.A. (University of Michigan–Flint)
Robert J. Kleine B.A., Economics and History (Western Maryland College); M.B.A., Finance (Michigan State University)
Holly A. Madill B.S., Environmental Science (University of Alabama); Master of Urban and Regional Planning (Michigan State University)
Suzanne M. Miel-Uken B.A., Social Science; M.S., Criminal Justice Administration (Michigan State University)
Amanda C. Menzies B.A., Social Science (Michigan State University)
Julie C. Metty B.A., Environmental Policy; M.S., Resource Development (Michigan State University)
Jane E.V. Powers B.S., Public Affairs Management (Michigan State University)
Peter P. Pratt B.A., English; M.A., English; Ph.D., English (University of Michigan)
Melissa L. Riba B.A., Sociology and Philosophy (California State University–Fresno); M.A., Sociology; Ph.D. program, Sociology (Michigan State University)
Amy E. Rosewarne B.A., Art History (University of Michigan); M.A., English Literature (California State University–Northridge); Ph.D. program, Cultural Studies (Michigan State University)
Craig Ruff B.A., Political Science; Master of Public Policy (University of Michigan)
William R. Rustem B.S., Social Science; M.S., Resource Development (Michigan State University)
Pamela J. Sanders B.S., Political Science (Central Michigan University)
Alois W. Sandner Ph.B., Philosophy (Sacred Heart Seminary)
Paul R. Smyth B.A., English (Kalamazoo College); M.A., English; M.S., Criminal Justice; Ph.D., English (Michigan State University)
Dennis C. Washington B.A., English (Oakland University); Master of Planning (University of Minnesota)
Elisabeth T. Weston B.A., Political Science (University of Michigan); M.B.A. (George Mason University)
Jeff D. Williams B.A., International Relations (Michigan State University); M.A., Public Affairs (University of Minnesota)

Authors for the Sponsors

Rob Collier B.A., Sociology and Political Science (Hobart College); Master of Public Administration (Central Michigan University)
Jeri Fischer B.A., Education (Central Michigan University); M.A., Education (Michigan State University)
Robin Lynn Schultheiss B.A., Liberal Arts (Central Michigan University)
Erin Skene B.A., Journalism; B.A., English (Michigan State University)
Mark Wilson B.A., Commerce; M.A., Commerce (University of Melbourne); M.A., Economics (University of Wisconsin); A.M., Regional Science; Ph.D., Regional Science (University of Pennsylvania)


All portions of the book were reviewed by at least two people other than the author and editor. These “second readers” usually were someone who has a background in the subject and another who has simply a layperson’s knowledge of the topic. Many PSC authors served as second readers as did other staff members and a number of people in state government and the private sector; others assisted by providing data and other information. For their help, we are indebted to Ari B. Adler, Rick Asher, Lance Boldrey, Craig Garthwaite, John Harrison, Howard Heideman, David Kimball, Diane Wolfe Levy, Stephen Manchester, David Murley, Randy O’Brien, Sam Singh, James Sinnamon, Sarah Slocum, Gillian Stoltman, Mark Sullivan, Linda Sykes, Donald VeCasey, Tom Weston, Keith Wilson, Bradley Wittman, Jay Wortley, and Rhonda Oyer Zimmerman. In addition, Matthew Ellsworth, Brandy Barnes, Jeramy Donovan, and Dyan Iansiti provided research and other assistance to the PSC authors.

Editing, Design, Production

Wilma L. Harrison Editor
Elisabeth T. Weston and Donna Van Natter Format and design
Gerree Serrels, Elias Rivers, and Jeff D. Williams Web site
Jeffrey Fillion Design
Millbrook Printing Company (Grand Ledge) Printer

Project Management

Jeff D. Williams for Public Sector Consultants
Erin S. Skene for the sponsors